Renaissance Revival FURNITURE.......................Illustrated Architecture Dictionary
Renaissance / Renaissance Revival Architecture Styles
Table of contents:
Renaissance - 15th century
First Renaissance Revival - 1840-1890
Second Renaissance Revival - 1890-1920
Commercial Renaissance Revival
Renaissance Revival FURNITURE
Renaissance and Reformation Stained Glass Windows
Renaissance style - 15th-17th centuries
The architectural style developed in early 15th century Italy during the rebirth (rinascimento) of classical art and learning.
The Renaissance period in Europe, from the 15th century to about the end of the 17th century, when art, architecture , philosophy and literature had a had a rebirth based on class Greek and Roman models. For example, see Putto.
Renaissance in Italy: The intellectual movement began in the 14th century with the writings of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio.
Vitruvius's Treatise on Architecture, originally written in the time of Augustus, was issued in Rome in Latin, in 1486, and translated into Italian in 1621. This became one of the bibles of Renaissance architecture, and through it, of design.
Initially characterized by the use of classical orders (e.g., Doric), round arches, and symmetrical composition.
It succeeded the Gothic as the style dominant in all of Europe after the mid-16th century, and evolved throughout the Mannerist phase into Baroque.
Florence windows: 3 types:
- Arcade: central column and round arches. Example: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
- Architrave: with consoles or cornice; Example, with consoles: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
- Order: with columns and entablature
Renaissance Palaces of Florence
The secular nature of the Renaissance - the triumph of Humanism even in the Catholic South - finds a symbol in the villa and the palace, not least the palaces of Florence, The palaces were built in the middle years of the fifteenth century for such princely and mercantile families as the Strozzi, as well as Medici (Medici-Riccardi), the Pitti, and the Pandolfini. They vary in detail but conform to type:
- Unlike the villas which were set among the fountains and cypresses of the surrounding hills, these palaces arc fundamentally urban.
- Each fills a city block.
- Each is built right up to the street frontage, presenting a cliff of masonry to the outer world.
- Each has an internal courtyard of shaded and colonnaded charm.
- Each relegates to the ground floor such subordinate things as offices, stables, kitchens and guard rooms.
- The bottom floor was constructed of rusticated stone to suggest a firm foundation and impenetrable defenses. Higher floors were formed from smooth ashlar blocks, with the joints hardly perceptible, to represent the refinement of the living area. The overall effect emphasizes that the building appears progressively lighter as the eye moves upward.
- Ground floor rooms often have quite small windows to the street, covered with heavy grilles. The grilles themselves, as in the case of the Palazzo Pitti, were often fine works of art, their metallic quality being a foil to the rusticated stonework.
- Mullioned windows were popular.
- Each palace has great suites of state apartments on the first floor - the piano nobile (second story in US) - with coved and painted ceilings. Externally this gives a splendid area of blank wall above each range of windows.
- Each palace has a crowning cornice; that of the Palazzo Strozzi overhangs the street by more than seven feet, casting a mighty shadow.
- The façades, while having scale and dignity, were austere.
- Often the greatest enrichment was the craggy character of the rusticated masonry or, as in the Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai, very flat pilasters.
What is mote important than individual façades is the fact that here had been created a new urban type, which was to be found throughout the centuries in the Georgian square, the Pall Mall clubs, the Wall Street bank. The wealthy businessman, now neither a churchman nor a feudal lord, had found his architectural symbol. Moreover, the modern street, the "corridor" of stone frontages, had, for better or worse, been invented.
Renaissance in France: In France, the Renaissance was introduced during the reign of Francis I.
Francis I and the French Renaissance
Paris, as the capital of the newly consolidated Kingdom of France and as the center of the brilliant court of Francis I, attained preeminence in art and literature. This resulted in the adoption of one national architectural style which emanated from Paris and the schools in the vicinity; while the valley of the Loire became a highway along which, in response to new social conditions, the famous chateaux of kings and courtiers sprang up and formed models for other parts of the country.
This influence was largely augmented by the presence, at the court and in the schools, of such Italian artists as Leonardo da Vinci, Cellini, Serlio, Vignola, Rosso, Primaticcio, and Cortona, and was further spread by Italian craftsmen who, traveling from place to place in the district south of the Loire, there erected many picturesque buildings.
The kingly power was gradually becoming absolute, owing largely to the policy of Cardinal Richelieu and his successor, Mazarin,in the reign of Louis XIII (1610-43).
- A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, by Sir Banister-Fletcher, New York, 1950
Renaissance in England: In England, the Renaissance began in the reign of Elizabeth I, during which Inigo Jones introduced the Italian Palladian style into England.
Renaissance style - 15th-17th centuries - examples:
- Left illustration above: Banqueting House at Whitehall, London, England (1619)
- Czech Republic: Sgraffito - Schwarzenberg Palace, Prague, Czech Republic - Sgraffito
- England: St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England
- France: Place des Vosges, Paris, France
- France: Fontainebleau Palace, France
- France: Château de Bourdeilles, France
- France: Étienne de La Boétie House, Serlat, France
- Italy: Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy
- Italy: Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy
- Italy: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy
- Italy: Palazzo Fenzi, Florence, Italy
- Italy: Sforza Castle, Milan, Italy
- Italy: Palladian Basilica, Vicenza, Italy
- Italy: Building, Catania, Sicily
- Netherlands: Oost-Indisch Huis, 4 Oude Hoogstraat, Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Poland: Wawel Castle, Cracow (Krakow), Poland
- Poland: 15 Ulica Kanonicza, Cracow (Krakow), Poland
- Poland: Deanery, Cracow (Krakow), Poland
- Poland: Cupola - Church of St. Mary (Kosciol Mariacki), Cracow, Poland
- Spain: Catalonian National Art Museum, Barcelona, Spain
- Spain: Palau de Generalitat, Barcelona, Spain
First Renaissance Revival style - 1840-1890
Renaissance Revival - 1840-1890
Buildings in the Renaissance Revival style show a definite studied formalism. The tightly contained cube is a symmetrical composition of early sixteenth century Italian elements.
Characteristics include finely cut ashlar that may be accentuated with rusticated quoins, architrave framed windows, and doors supporting entablatures or pediments.
Each sash may have several lights or just one.
A belt or string course may divide the ground or first floor from the upper floors.
Smaller square windows indicate the top or upper story.
- Identifying American Architecture, by John J.-G. Blumenson. New York: Norton. 1981, p.
Second (Italian) Renaissance Revival 1890-1920
Beaux Arts substyle
A later revival of Renaissance-inspired design in American houses occurred from about 1890-1930 and was the purest in its resemblance to the Italian originals. The period benefited from first hand familiarity with original models, improved printing technology for photographic documentation, and perfected masonry veneering techniques after W.W.I
At first, this style was relatively rare, found mostly in architect-designed landmark houses. By about 1920, the technique of veneering a single layer of brick or stone onto the outside of wood framed walls had been perfected leading to smaller and less costly Italian Renaissance designs that were popular in suburban neighborhoods.
One of the architects who popularized the style was Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895), the first American to study at the prestigious L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Hunt was one of the architects who designed buildings for the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago where the style received great publicity.
The Italian Renaissance style was much less common than the more popular Tudor and Colonial Revival styles of the period. The style declined steadily in popularity through the 1930s, and post-1940 examples are rare.
Identifying features of the Italian Renaissance:
- low-pitched hipped roofs covered with ceramic tiles
- widely overhanging eaves, often supported by decorative brackets
- upper-story windows smaller and less elaborate than windows below
- commonly with arches above doors, first-story windows, or porches
- symmetrical facade
Second Renaissance Revival 1890-1920
Scale and size distinguish the later Revival from the earlier Renaissance Revival.
The window trim or surround also usually changes from floor to floor. Additional floors are seen in the small mezzanine or entresol windows.
Arcades and arched openings often are seen in the same building with straight-headed or pedimented openings. Enriched and projecting cornices are supported with large modillions or consoles. The roof often is highlighted with a balustrade.
In turning to larger Renaissance buildings for models, architects working in this style opened the door for greater size, textural richness, and variety in form. The style well suited the grandiosity required by a very rich client like Cornelius Vanderbilt, who commissioned The Breakers, in Newport, Rhode Island.
Renaissance Revival 1895-1920
Late-nineteenth- century revivals are larger, grander,
and more elaborate than earlier nineteenth-century style revivals. They tend to be
stately rather than exciting, "correct" rather than daring.
Italian Renaissance Revival
The Italian Renaissance revival, directly inspired by the great Renaissance houses of Italy, was one of the most popular of the Beaux Arts design modes, lasting from the the 1800s until the 1920s.
While the Victorian Italianate was essentially a loose interpretation of Italian architecture, drawn primarily from pattern books, the Italian Renaissance revival took a much more academic approach, with design features often copied directly from actual Renaissance landmarks, Roman, Florentine, and Venetian prototypes - ducal palazzi or county villas - were translated into American "palaces," primarily in cities such as New York and fashionable resorts like Newport, Rhode Island.
Second Renaissance Revival examples from Buffalo:
- Right illustration above: Lafayette High School - French Renaissance Revival.
- Francis W. Tracy Monument
- Ellicott Square Building
- Photo - John Strootman House
- Harlow C. Curtiss House, 479 Delaware Ave.
- St Vincent's School
- 70 Niagara Street
- St Gerard's RC Church
- Erlanger Theater Demolished
- Mayflower Apartments Second Renaissance Revival
- Lafayette Hotel - French Renaissance Revival
- Walbridge Building Second Renaissance Revival
- S. Douglas Cornell House - French Renaissance Revival
- Charles W. Goodyear House - French Renaissance Revival
- Bemis House - Flemish Renaissance Revival
- YMCA - English Flemish Renaissance Revival
- Riviera Theatre Italian Renaissance
- Liberty Bank Building Second Italian Renaissance
- Thomas J. McKinney House Second Italian Renaissance
- Fireplace - Thomas J. McKinney House
- Fireplace - Appleton House/Medaille College President's Residence
- Marble fireplace - Bush/Depew House
Second Renaissance Revival other examples:
- Albright Memorial Library, Scranton, Pa. - French Renaissance Revival
- Centraal Station, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1899) - Dutch Renaissance Revival
- Carnegie Hall, New York City - Italian Renaissance Revival
- Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Milan, Italy (1865-1877)
- Pierpont Morgan Library Complex, New York City - Italian Renaissance Revival
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